Doderer was born in 1969 in Bregenz, Austria. She is the great-niece of the Austrian novelist Heimito von Doderer and a great-granddaughter of the architect Carl Wilhelm von Doderer. Doderer learned her trade in Graz with Beat Furrer (composition), then later in Vienna with Klaus Peter Sattler (film and media composition) and Erich Urbanner (composition). Her current work ranges broadly from chamber music to orchestral work and to opera. In the immediate future she intends to concentrate her work in the field of opera.
An important aspect of her artistic career is her frequent collaborations with musicians such as Patricia Kopatchinskaja, Sylvia Khittl-Muhr, Marlis Petersen and Edua Zadory, and with the conductor Ulf Schirmer.
Her work was performed at the Austrian Embassy, Washington, D.C. by violinist Édua Zádory and the Momenta Quartet. In December 2012 the University of Arts Graz (Austria) devoted an entire day to performances of Johanna Doderer's works.